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Board of Occupational Therapy Practice History

I.  History of Occupational Therapy 

II.  Inception and Mission of the Board

III.  Get to Know Your Board Members

IV.  Past/Present Board Members

V.  Administrative History of Statute and Regulations

 

I.    History of Occupational Therapy

    A.  Age of Enlightenment:  late 1700's and early 1800's

    B.  Moral Treatment Movement

  1.  Phillippe Pinel, a French physician, introduced "work treatment" for the "insane" in the late 1700's.  He used occupation to divert the patients' minds away from their emotional distrubances and toward improving their skills.
  2. William Tuke, an English Quaker and wealthy merchant, became aware of the terrible conditions in an asylum in York, England.  He suggested establishing the York Retreat.  The environment at the York retreat was like that of a family where the patients were approached with kindness and consideration.  These methods were preferable to using restraint and drugs.
  3. In the United States, a Quaker named Benjamin Rush was the first physician to institute Moral Treatment practices.  (Coincidentally, the Maryland Board of Occupational Therapy is located in the Bland Bryant Building, 4th Floor, on the campus of Spring Grove Hospital Center.)
  4. Susan Tracy and other professionals formed the backbone of modern occupational therapy and eventally leading to the present day American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA).

II.    Inception and Mission of the Board

    A.    Inception:  

                    The Board of Occupational Therapy Practice was established in Maryland in 1979.

    B.    Program Description:  

The State Board of Occupational Therapy Practice (the "Board") operates under the provisions of Title 10 of the Health Occupations Article of the Annotated Code of Maryland. The Board is the licensing authority of Occupational Therapists and Occupational Therapist Assistants in the State of Maryland. The Board is mandated to regulate the practice of Occupational Therapy in Maryland by licensing qualified occupational therapists and occupational therapist assistants, establishing fees, maintaining a current roster of all licensees, promulgating regulations for the practice of Occupational Therapy, verification of credentials, issuance of licenses, establish requirements for and verification of completion of continuing education, investigation of complaints based on alleged violations of regulations and statutes, formal and informal disciplining of licensees, create committees as deemed appropriate to advise the Board. The program is 100% special funded. The fund is supported exclusively by revenues generated by licensing fees. The Board consists of 7 members appointed by the Governor with the advice of the Secretary and advice of the Senate. Four members of the Board are licensed occupational therapists, one member is a licensed occupational therapist assistant, and two members represent the public.

  C.    Mission:                    

The Mission of the Board of Occupational Therapy is to protect the citizens of Maryland and to promote quality health care in the field of Occupational Therapy by:

  1. Licensing occupational therapists and occupational therapist assistants;
  2. Setting standards for the practice of Occupational Therapy through regulations and legislation; and
  3. Receiving and resolving complaints from the public regarding occupational therapists and occupational therapist assistants who may have violated the Occupational Therapy law (Annotated Code of Maryland, Health Occupations Article, Title 10) and its regulations found at COMAR 10.46.

III.  Get to Know Your Board Members

    1. Joyce Ford, COTA/L, Board Chairperson
    2. I am a licensed and certified Occupational Therapy Assistant.  I graduated from CCBC, Catonsville Campus, from the OTA Program with an AA degree.  I have been practicing OT for 15 years in the field of Physical Disabilities and Mental Health in Maryland.  My specialties include Physical Disabilities, Chronic Pain Management, Pulmonary Rehabilitation, Health and Wellness.  I have published several articles in "OT Practice" magazine on "Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Relaxation and Breathing Retraining" and "Using Aromatherapy in Traditional OT".  I am President of Body Repairs, LLC (Private Practice - Outpatient and Homecare).  I hold PRN positions in several nursing homes in Baltimore and work part-time at Good Samaritan Hospital as a staff COTA.  I am a Level I and Level II clinical supervisor for OTA students.  I am a (CDI) Certified Driving Instructor for adults and teens.

    3. Christine Moghimi, MAS, OTR/L, Board Vice Chairperson 
    4. I have been an Occupational Therapist for 26 years.  I have worked in a variety of settings:  mental health, pediatrics, subacute, acute care, acute rehab, home care, outpatient, and long-term care.  I have a masters of administrative science degree from Johns Hopkins University, and am currently pursuing a doctoral degree in Occupational Science at Towson University.  I am currently the director of rehabilitation services at Manor Care, and a part-time faculty member at Towson University.

    5. Kuzhilethu K. Kshepakaran, M.Ed., OTR/L
    6. Occupational Therapy has been my life's occupation for the last 48 years.  I got into this profession by accident.  However, over the years, I have grown to like it more and more.  My professional life began in India, where my roots are, and have continued in the United States since 1969.  Currently, I am semi-retired, occasionally working with patients or teaching an OT course now and then at Towson University.  I started my clinical practice in the United States as a staff therapist and advanced to managerial levels.  In my teaching career, which spans 22 years, I started as an instructor and ended as a chairperson of an OT professional program.  Highlights of my involvement in the profession include serving as Accreditation Evaluator for AOTA, a representative of AOTA's Representative Assembly, and as an item writer for the National Board for Certification in Occupational Therapy (NBCOT).

    7. Kamala Stevenson, MS, OTR/L
    8. I have a Bachelors of Science degree in Human Development/Child Psychology from Howard University.  I hold a Masters of Science in Occupational Therapy from Towson University.  I am a Gulf War veteran and have been on the Board for over 1 year.  

    9. Meenakshi D. Gupta, Consumer Board Member
    10. I have been a consumer member on the Maryland Occupational Therapy Board for a year.  I was born and raised in India.  I have a Bachelor of Science degree in Zoology, Botany and Chemistry from Delhi University, India.  I moved to the United States in 1979 and have been a legal assistant for 30 years.  My proudest achievements in life include my two children.  My daughter is a practicing lawyer, and my son is studying to become a doctor.

    11. Jocelind M. Julien, Consumer Member
    12. As the director and chief mediator for the Mediation Center for Anne Arundel County State's Attorney's Office in Glen Burnie, I oversee all phases of office operations and dispute resolution services for the State's Attorney's Office, as well as mediate a high volume of criminal cases deferred from prosecution.  I have served as a mediator and facilitator for over 8 years and have designed and delivered trainings in such areas as conflict resolution, respect, sexual harassment, and risk management briefings for interview panelists.  In addition, I instituted statewide affirmative action and equal employment opportunity programs in accordance with federal and state regulations.  My compassion toward human conflict and my ability to facilitate communication between parties and help people in conflict to explore their options in a cooperative environment have created success in resolving a large percentage of disputes.  My strength is my combined ability to work as a neutral facilitator in resolving current conflicts and as a trainer to help manage and prevent future conflicts.  I am an active member of the Association for Conflict Resolution (ACR) Maryland Chapter and the Mediators of Color Alliance Network.

    13. Donna Ashman, Executive Director

As Executive Director for the Maryland Board of Occupational Therapy Practice, I am responsible for coordinating monthly Board meetings, developing legislative proposals and State regulations, adjudicating complaints, as well as oversight of the Board office operations.  My educational background includes a Bachelor of Arts degree from Towson University and a Master of Administrative Science Degree from The Johns Hopkins University.

IV.  Past/Present Board Members
    1. Past/Present Board members 

1/11/1979    Thomas J. Filip, III, President
                    Carole Hays, OTR
                    Bonnie Moy, OTR, Secretary
                    Charlotte Seltser, COTA
                    Lillian Byrd, OTR

2/5/1979     Lillian Byrd resigned.

7/2/1979     Penny Kyler added.

10/21/1981 Ms. Seltser resigned from the Board.

5/21/1982   Nancy Rehmeyer added to the Board.

4/15/1983   Linda Walker added as Administrator.

7/20/1984   Elizabeth Hoffman replaces Carole Hays.

10/19/1984 Thomas J. Filip, III, President
                   Elizabeth Hoffman
                   Penny Kyler-Hutchison
                   Bonnie Moy
                   Nancy Rehmeyer
                   Linda Dorsey-Walker, Administrator

9/1985        Thomas J. Filip, III, President
                   Diane Gray
                   Elizabeth Hoffman, Secretary
                   Deborah Lieberman
                   Nancy Rehmeyer
                   Linda Dorsey-Walker, Administrator

7/18/1986   Elizabeth Hoffman, President
                   Diane Gray
                   Deborah Leiberman
                   Nancy Rehmeyer, Secretary
                   Linda Dorsey-Walker, Administrator

9/16/1986    Elizabeth Hoffman, President
                    Nancy Gerace
                    Diane Gray
                    Deborah Lieberman
                    Harry Smith, Sr., Consumer Member
                    Linda Dorsey Walker, Administrator

10/14/1988  Elizabeth Hoffman
                    Diane Hunter
                    Deborah Lieberman
                    Harry Smith
                    Linda Dorsey Walker, Administrator

1/20/1989    Cheryl Hastings, Acting Administrator

10/20/1989  Elizabeth Hoffman
                    Diane Hunter
                    Deborah Lieberman
                    Harry Smith, Sr.
                    Alice Arthur
                    Suzanne Browne, Administrator

1/1990         Elected Diane Hunter as President
                    and Deborah Lieberman as Secretary

8/17/1990    Jo Hubbs replaces Elizabeth Hoffman.

10/18/1991  Jo A. Hubbs, President
                    Frances Silverstein
                    Harry Smith
                    Alice Arthur, Sr., Consumer Member
                    Carole Bainer
                    Suzanne Browne, Administrator

7/17/1992    Jo A. Hubbs, President
                    Carol Bainer
                    Gladys Patterson, Consumer Member
                    Frances Silvestein, Secretary
                    Suzanne Browne, Administrator

9/1992         Betty Cox appointed as COTA member.

1/22/1993    Donna Ashman welcomed as Administrator

6/18/1993    Elected Carol Bainer as Board President and Legislative
                    Liaison and Betty Cox for Board Secretary.

10/15/1993  Carol Bainer, President
                    Betty Cox, Secretary
                    Gladys Patterson, Consumer Member
                    Alfred Tyler, Consumer Member
                    Frances Silverstein
                    Elena Skittle
                    Donna Ashman, Administrator

5/20/1994    Carol Bainer, President
                    Kristen Brown
                    Betty Cox, Secretary
                    Gladys Patterson, Consumer Member
                    Frances Silverstein
                    Elena Skittle
                    Alfred Tyler, Consumer Member
                    Donna Ashman, Administrator

6/16/1995    Elena Skittle-Watson, Board Co-Chairperson
                    Betty Cox, Board Co-Chairperson
                    Carol Bainer
                    Kristen Brown, Board Secretary
                    Frances Silverstein
                    Alfred Tyler, Consumer Member
                    Donna Ashman, Administrator

8/18/1995    Judith Blum replaces Carol Bainer on the Board

11/17/1995 Barbara McLaughlin added as a Consumer Member

                    7/18/1997   Kristen Brown elected as Board Co-Chairperson
                                       and Judith Blum as Board Secretary.
                                       Deborah Craig replaces Betty Cox.

                    8/21/1998   Kristen Brown and Judith Blum were elected as Board  
                                       Co-Chairpersons and Frances Silverstein as Board Secretary.

                    2/18/2000  Joyce Carla Farrington replaces Frances Silverstein on the Board.

                    5/19/2000  Joyce Carla Farrington and Judith Blum elected as
                                      Board Co-Chairpersons.
                                      Board secretary position considered as obsolete.
                                      Thaddeus Meade Felton added as Consumer Member.

                   10/20/2000 Judith Blum, Co-Chairperson
                                      Joyce Carla Farrington, Co-Chairperson
                                      Elena Skittle-Watson
                                      Claudia McInerney
                                      Debbie Craig
                                      Thaddeus Meade Felton
                                      Alfred Tyler
                                      Donna Ashman, Administrator

                9/03/2002     Cindy McKoin joined the Board, replacing Elena Skittle-Watson.

                7/01/2003     Joyce Carla Farrington elected as Chairperson.
                                     Claudia McInerney elected as Vice Chairperson.

                7/01/2003     Linda Leimbach joined the Board, replacing Judith Blum.
                                     Nathaniel Johnson, Consumer Member, replaced Alfred Tyler.

                5/19/2005     Claudia McInerney elected as Chairperson.
                                     Cindy McKoin elected as Vice Chairperson.

                9/05/2005     Joyce Ford joined the Board, replacing Debbie Craig.

                2006             Pastor Nathaniel Johnson resigned as the Consumer Member.

                12/2006        Christine Moghimi joined the Board, replacing Cindy McKoin.

                10/2007        Kamela Stevenson joined the Board, replacing Joyce Carla
                                     Farrington.     
                                     Kuzhilethu K. Kshepakaran joined the Board, replacing Linda
                                     Leimbach.

                2007             Claudia McInerney, Board Chairperson
                                     Joyce Ford, Vice Chairperson
                                     Joyce Carla Farrington
                                     Linda Leimbach
                                     Christine Moghimi                
                                     Thaddeus Meade Felton, Consumer Member
                                     Meenakshi Gupta, Consumer Member

                2008             Jocelind Julien, Consumer Member, replacing Thaddeus Meade Felton.
                                     Iyna Adams joined the Board, replacing Claudia McInerney.
                                     Joyce Ford became Board Chairperson, and Christine Moghimi became
                                     Board Vice Chairperson.                                  

                                    

V.  Administrative History of Statute and Regulations.

1.  Chapter 01 General Regulations

Effective date: January 31, 1983 (10:2 Md. R. 109)

  • Regulation .01 amended effective July 3, 1995 (22:13 Md. R. 968)
  • Regulation .02 amended effective July 3, 1995 (22:13 Md. R. 968)
  • Regulation .03 repealed effective July 20, 1992 (19:14 Md. R. 1284)
  • Regulation .03 adopted effective July 3, 1995 (22:13 Md. R. 968)
  • Regulation .04 adopted effective July 3, 1995 (22:13 Md. R. 968)
  • Regulations .01 — .04 repealed and new Regulation .01 — .06 adopted as an emergency provision effective October 1, 2000 (27:21 Md. R. 1973); emergency status extended at 28:7 Md. R. 687 and 28:9 Md. R. 884; adopted permanently effective April 30, 2001 (28:8 Md. R. 761)
  • Regulation .01B amended effective December 10, 2001 (28:24 Md. R. 2129)
  • Regulation .03 amended effective December 10, 2001 (28:24 Md. R. 2129)
  • Regulation .07 adopted effective December 10, 2001 (28:24 Md. R. 2129)
  • Chapter revised effective April 21, 2008 (35:8 Md. R. 805)

2. Chapter 02 Code of Ethics

Effective date: January 31, 1983 (10:2 Md. R. 109)

  • Chapter repealed and new Regulations .01 — .03 adopted effective August 7, 2000 (27:15 Md. R. 1401)
  • Regulation .01A amended effective April 21, 2008 (35:8 Md. R. 805)
3.  Chapter 03 Procedure for Board Hearings

Effective date: January 31, 1983 (10:2 Md. R. 109)

  • Regulation .04 amended effective October 1, 2000 (27:17 Md. R. 1620
  • Regulation .05 amended effective October 1, 2000 (27:17 Md. R. 1620); April 21, 2008 (35:8 Md. R. 805)
  • Regulation .05C amended effective January 30, 1995 (22:2 Md. R. 77); April 21, 2008 (35:8 Md. R. 805)
  • Regulation .0-5 amended effective October 1, 2000 (27:17 Md. R. 1620)

4.  Chapter 04 Continuing Competency Requirement

Effective date: July 29, 1985 (12:15 Md. R. 1520)

  • Regulation .02A amended effective March 27, 1995 (22:6 Md. R. 474)
  • Regulation .03 amended effective March 27, 1995 (22:6 Md. R. 474)
  • Regulations .04 — .07 repealed and new Regulations .04 — .07 adopted effective March 27, 1995 (22:6 Md. R. 474)
  • Regulations .01 — .07 repealed and new Regulations .01 — .08 adopted effective October 2, 2000 (27:19 Md. R. 1726)
  • Chapter revised effective April 21, 2008 (35:8 Md. R. 805)

5.  Chapter 05 Collection of Fees

Effective date: July 20, 1992 (19:14 Md. R. 1284)

  • Regulation .01 amended as an emergency provision effective October 1, 1993 (20:20 Md. R. 1566); amended permanently effective April 2, 1994 (20:22 Md. R. 1708)
  • Regulation .01 amended effective November 3, 1997 (24:22 Md. R. 1552); August 21, 2000 (27:16 Md. R. 1526)
  • Regulation .01 amended and Regulation .02 adopted as an emergency provision effective August 31, 2001 (28:19 Md. R. 1681); adopted permanently effective December 10, 2001 (28:24 Md. R. 2129)
  • Regulation .01 amended effective March 15, 2004 (31:5 Md. R. 449)
  • Regulation .01 repealed and new Regulation .01 adopted effective April 21, 2008 (35:8 Md. R. 805)
  • Regulation .02 amended effective April 21, 2008 (35:8 Md. R. 805)

6.  Chapter 06 Competency Requirements for Physical Agent Modalities

Effective date:

  • Regulations .01 — .06 adopted as an emergency provision effective June 1, 2001 (28:12 Md. R. 1102); adopted permanently effective September 17, 2001 (28:18 Md. R. 1621)
  • Chapter revised effective April 21, 2008 (35:8 Md. R. 805)